What's the Law
Minor Consent Laws
A minor is a person under the age of 18. In Ohio, minors have the right to consent to different health services, but need parental consent for others.
Ohio has no laws specifying whether or not a minor can get birth control without parental consent (1). Private doctors may or may not provide minors with contraceptives depending on the maturity of the minor and the doctor's own confidentiality policies. Minors may get contraceptives from Title X clinics, which are completely confidential and offer a range of sexual health services (2). It should be noted that parental consent is not required to buy condoms, which can be purchased by any person of any age.
In Ohio, minors may consent to STI services (3). This means parental consent is not required for STI testing. However, minors may not consent to treatment for HIV. If the minor tests positive, the results must be reported to the health department, and the minor's former sexual partners must be notified. Ohio law does not, however, require that physicians inform the minor's parents.
Ohio has no explicit policy on a minor's authority to consent to prenatal care. This means depending on where the minor goes, a provider could or could not provide them services (4).
A minor who becomes pregnant may consent to placing her child for adoption. The State of Ohio allows all minor parents to choose to place their child for adoption without the involvement of a parent or legal counsel. (5).
An unemancipated minor cannot have an abortion without the written consent of one of her parents or guardians, or a court order (6).
Medicaid Sexual Health Services Coverage
There are two types of coverage Medicaid provides that deals with sexual health; family planning visits and services, and pregnancy related services. Coverage varies state to state, but Ohio has pretty comprehensive Medicaid coverage.
What does family planning Services mean?
Family planning services simply refers to reproductive health care for men and women. In Ohio, all Medicaid recipients are eligible to receive family planning services.
What types of care are covered under family planning?
In Ohio, the following types of care are considered family planning (7,8) :
• Oral contraceptives
• IUDs and IUD removal
• Implants and Implant removal
• Injectable contraceptives
• Over the counter contraceptives
• Emergency contraception pill*
• Tubal ligation
• Preconception care
• Gynecologic exams*
• Contraceptive counseling
• Reproductive health education*
• Preconception counseling
• Infertility test
• Cancer screening and prevention
• Pap testing*
*sometimes considered a family planning service, depending on context of visit
What types of care are covered under pregnancy related services?
Pregnancy related services are offered to all pregnant women. These services include the following (9, 10) :
• Prenatal and postpartum doctor visits
• Genetic screening
• Ultrasounds (if medically necessary)
• Childbirth classes
• Labor and delivery/ hospital stay
• Infant care education
• Newborns can also get health care and immunizations through Healthchek (11)
6. Ohio Revised Code 2919.121